Ludmila Czerneková

* 1936

  • “We sat there on a bench at the station (Krakow), each one of us with a head on one side of my mother's lap. The Gestapo came, they took us, locked us up. Before the documents were processed, we were released and we went to Slovakia. There was a good soldier from Slovakia among the Germans, and he somehow helped my mother to handle the paperwork so that we could get out of that Ukraine and leave from Slovakia to Zlín. We then walked from Zlín to Březnice. My mom had boots, warm boots like that. We walked in light shoes, so she always warmed our feet in them for a while, until we walked those six kilometers through the forest to our grandmother. To this day, I see my grandmother coming to the doorstep towards us, clapped her hands and saying, 'Oh my God, daughter, what are you doing here?' So, we stayed there."

  • "I only found out from my mother after the war that he was the head of the NKVD. He merged the collective farms and traveled a lot on business trips. I know that once he was terribly afraid, he was waiting for a liaison officer and that if the man didn't come, they would shoot him, and he was already saying goodbye to my mother. The man came, but he still enlisted and we don't know anything about him furthermore."

  • "When the Germans came there, they took my father's family to a court and shot them all. My mother and I were not at home, we were outside. The people who met us on the way home said, 'God, don't go home, there's a pogrom.' And so, they hid us. So, we hid before we got on that cow train and drove here to Grandma.”

  • Celé nahrávky
  • 1

    Horní Benešov, 10.03.2022

    délka: 01:10:32
    nahrávka pořízena v rámci projektu Stories of 20th Century
  • 2

    Horní Benešov, 23.03.2022

    délka: 38:29
    nahrávka pořízena v rámci projektu Stories of 20th Century
Celé nahrávky jsou k dispozici pouze pro přihlášené uživatele.

A person enjoyed only scabies, lice and hunger there

Ludmila Czerneková (Kozmiková), mid 1950s
Ludmila Czerneková (Kozmiková), mid 1950s
zdroj: archive of the witness

Ludmila Czerneková, née Kozmiková, was born in Ashgabat - the capital of the Turkmen Federal Republic of the USSR. It was not until much later that they set the date of her birth for February 14, 1936, only approximately. During the First Republic, her grandparents went with the Interhelpo cooperative to Kyrgyzstan, where they formed Komuna. After a few years, the Kozmík family returned to Czechoslovakia, but the mother of the witness Vlasta remained in the Soviet Union. In Zhytomyr, she met the witness‘s father, Ivan Petrovich Spilkovsky. The father was a Ukrainian Jew and, according to Ludmila Czernekova, he commanded the NKVD (The People‘s Commissariat for Internal Affairs) in Zhytomyr. After the German invasion of the Soviet Union, the Nazis shot members of his family. The mother then fled with five-year-old Ludmila and her seven-year-old sister Alena from Ukraine. After a dramatic journey which took several months, they arrived in Březnice in the Zlín region, where they remained until the end of the war. Witness‘s grandfather František Kozmik joined the communist resistance during the war. After an extensive wave of arrests by the Gestapo – because he was afraid about his family and also about possible betrayal of somebody during the torture - he hanged himself in the forest cemetery in Zlín in mid-January 1943. Immediately after the liberation in May 1945, the mother decided to take her two daughters and return to Zhytomyr to look for their father. In the post-war chaos, when hundreds of thousands of refugees cruised all over Europe, they again spent several months in cattle wagons and various camps. However, they did not find Ivan Petrovič Spilkovsky in Žitomir, so they returned to Czechoslovakia in cattle wagons in 1947 as part of re-emigration. Ludmila joined Moravolen in Horní Benešov right after primary school, where she worked for thirty years until she retired. In 1955, she married Miroslav Czernek, with whom she had daughters Eva and Ludmila. In 2022 she lived with her husband in Horní Benešov.